Single intravenous injection of cesium solution

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Between 1961 and 1963 Bill Norris and Tom Fritz performed one of several Beagle Dog Experiments at Argonne National Laboratory. They performed Single intravenous injection of cesium solution; dogs of various ages, of both sexes in order to examine the organs and tissues at risk following the internal deposition of cesium-137 and determine the influence of age at exposure on these risk patterns.

Contents

Red Book Description

Copied from: Roy C Thompson. Life-Span Effects of Ionizing Radiation in the Beagle Dog (1989) (link pdf)

Results as of 1977:

Age at injection (months) Quantity Injected (uCi/kg) No. of Animals Injected No. of Animals Dead Median Postexp. Survival (years) Whole-Body Dose to Median Survival (rad) Notable pathological findings Incidence (%)
5 3.2 to 3.8 15 15 7.5 770 3 acute marrow deaths
3 liver degeneration
1 neurofibrosarcorna
4 miscellaneous tumors
20
20
7
13 1.6 to 2.8 19 19 8.4 890 1 acute marrow death

3 liver degeneration
3 neurolibrosarcoma
7 miscellaneous tumors

5

16
16

13 3.1 to 4.3 19 19 6.3 1260 9 acute marrow deaths

2 liver degeneration
2 neurof~brosarcoma
5 miscellaneous tumors

47

11
11

34 to 68 2.0 to 3.7 12 12 0.07 < 1000 12 acute marrow deaths 100

A detailed description of the design and results of this experiment has not been published; limited information is available only from an NCRP report (NCRP, 1977). Higher acute toxicity in older dogs was attributed to higher radiation doses occasioned by increased biological retention of cesium with age. Relative to nonirradiated controls (not described) a shortening in average life occurred in dogs surviving the acute effects of CS-137 radiation. Nearly all long-term survivors showed significant liver degeneration. The most frequently observed cancer was the neurofibrosarcoma, a nerve-sheath tumor that is "quite rare" in controls (NCRP, 1977).

Information relevant to this experiment will be found in the following Argonne National Laboratory periodic reports:

  • 1962 (Apr) ANL-6535 45-48
  • 1963 (May) ANL-6723 107-116
  • 1963 (Oct) ANL-6790 31-39
  • 1964 (Jan) ANL-6823 44-62
  • 1964 (Jun) ANL-6906 42-46 [1]
  • 1964 (Dec) ANL-6971 133-137 [2]
  • 1965 (Dec) ANL-7136 110-113
  • 1966 (Dec) ANL-7278 95-102
  • 1967 (Dec) ANL-7409 254-256
  • 1968 (Dec) ANL-7535 163-165
  • 1969 (Dec) ANL-7635 102-103
  • 1970 (Dec) ANL-7770 139-141
  • 1971 (Dec) ANL-7870 146-149
  • 1972 (Dec) ANL-7970 206-208
  • 1974 (Dec) ANL-75-30 17-20
  • 1975 (Dec) ANL-76-99 19-21


Gray Book Description

Copied from: GB Gerber, CR Watson, T Sugahara, and S Okada. International Radiobiology Archives of Long-Term Animal Studies I. Descriptions of Participating Institutions and Studies (1996) ([3])

Institution: Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL

Scientists: Bill Norris; retired, Tom Fritz; retired

Purpose Examine the organs and tissues at risk following the internal deposition of cesium-137 in a soluble form and the influence of age at exposure on these risk patterns.

Status Injection of cesium-137 between 1961 and 1963, death of last dog in 1970. Collaborative summary prepared at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute in 1995 (see study 105.05).

Treatment Single intravenous injection of cesium chloride solution.

Endpoints Dogs were provided with life-time clinical care, including annual physical examination and blood work-ups. At necropsy, a thorough gross examination was conducted, and a preliminary cause of death was determined. After histopathological examination of tissues from suspected lesions and an extensive suite of representative tissues, a "final" cause of death was entered into the database.

Animal 63 Beagle dogs (28 females, 35 males), of 3 age categories (5, 13, and ~60 mo), in 8 groups. NOTE - NCRP 52 (1977) & RCT (1989) subdivide the 13 mo group by dose.

Results Although a detailed description has not been published, information from this study was summarized in NCRP report 52. Acute toxicity in older dogs was attributed to higher radiation doses associated with increased biological retention of cesium with age. Nearly all the long-term dogs showed significant liver degeneration Compare with study 105.05.

References Nikula, K.J., B.A. Muggenburg, W.C. Griffith, W.W. Carlton, T.E. Fritz, and B.B. Boecker. Biological effects of cesium-137 chloride injected in beagle dogs of different ages, Radiation Research (submitted in 1996).

Experimental Groups Study 103.04 Life-Span Health Risks: Single Injection of Cesium-137 in Beagles

Group Id Age at Injection Initial Body Burden (kBq/kg) Number of Dogs Post-Injection Survival (y)
Min Median Max Min Median Max
01 Control Control Control Control 17 8.1 13.7 15.6
Late-Ocurring Deaths <11.5 G
02 Juvenile 120 120 1400 5 6.5 9.0 13.2
03 Young Adult 61 64 81 9 6.4 8.4 12.8
Middle Aged 0
Late-Ocurring Deaths > 11.5 Gy
04 Juvenile 120 130 150 5 5.1 8.8 9.6
05 Young Adult 61 99 160 19 4.4 9.2 12.1
Middle Aged 0
Early-Ocurring Deaths
06 Juvenile 140 150 150 3 0.074 0.074 0.11
07 Young Adult 100 140 160 10 0.066 0.077 0.14
08 Middle Aged 120 130 140 10 0.055 0.066 0.080
Total 80

Data

The location of the original source data from this study is not known.

Tissues

There are no known preserved tissues from this study.

References

  • National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. 1977. Cesium-137 From The Environment To Man: Metabolism And Dose. NCRP Report No. 52. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington DC.
  • Nikula, K.J., B.A. Muggenburg, W.C. Griffith, W.W. Carlton, T.E. Fritz, and B.B. Boecker. Biological effects of cesium-137 chloride injected in beagle dogs of different ages, Radiation Research (submitted in 1996). pubmed
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