Single intravenous injection of cerium citrate solution

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In 1960 Tom Fritz and Bill Norris performed one of several Beagle Dog Experiments at Argonne National Laboratory. They administered Single intravenous injection of cerium-144 citrate solution to 49 Beagle dogs (11 females, 38 males), "approximately 13 mo" of age in order to study the long-term effects of soluble Ce-144.


Red Book Description

Copied from: Roy C Thompson. Life-Span Effects of Ionizing Radiation in the Beagle Dog (1989) (link pdf)

Results as of 1970:

Quantity Injected (uCi/kg) No. of animals Injected Total No. of Animals Dead Cause of Death Time of Death (days post-injection) Range of Injected Radionucleotides (uCi/kg) No. of Deaths Incidence (%)
23 to 253 49 39 acute anemia < 100 47 to 253 17 44
chronic anemia > 1000 28 to 73 5 13
bone tumors > 900 23 to 80 16 41

A single report describes early results of this study (Fritz, 1970). Of the 16 dogs dying with bone tumors, 7 also showed mild to severe anemia. Atypical myeloproliferation was observed in bone specimens from 5 dogs with anemia at times later than 100 days postinjection. Liver lesions consisting of alternating areas of degeneration, atrophy, and regeneration were also seen in these five dogs. One of these dogs was considered to exhibit a clear case of myelogenous leukemia, with the diagnosis questionable for the other four. Final results have not been published.

Information relevant to this experiment will be found in the following Argonne National Laboratory periodic reports:

  • 1962 (Apr) ANL-6535 40-45
  • 1963 (May) ANL-6723 117-120
  • 1964 (Jan) ANL-6823 73-74
  • 1964 (Jun) ANL-6906 41-42 [1]
  • 1964 (Dec) ANL-6971 138-142 [2]
  • 1966 (Dec) ANL-7278 112-114
  • 1967 (Dec) ANL-7409 260-265
  • 1968 (Dec) ANL-7535 162-163
  • 1970 (Dec) ANL-7770 143-144
  • 1971 (Dec) ANL-7870 145-146

Gray Book Description

Copied from: GB Gerber, CR Watson, T Sugahara, and S Okada. International Radiobiology Archives of Long-Term Animal Studies I. Descriptions of Participating Institutions and Studies (1996) ([3])

Institution: Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL

Scientists: Bill Norris; retired, Tom Fritz; retired

Purpose: To study the long-term effects of soluble Ce-144.

Status: Injection of cerium-144 between 1964 and 1969, death of last dog in 1985. Final

Treatment: Single intravenous injection of cerium-144 citrate solution.

Endpoints: Dogs were provided with life-time clinical care, including annual physical examination and blood work-ups. At necropsy a thorough gross examination was conducted, and a preliminary cause of death was determined. After histopathological examination of tissues from suspected lesions and an extensive suite of representative tissues, a "final" cause of death was determined and entered into the database.

Animal: 49 Beagle dogs (11 females, 38 males), "approximately 13 mo" of age, in 2 groups



Experimental Groups: Study 103.03 Life-Span Health Risks: Single Injection of Cerium-144 in Young Adult Beagles

Group Id Total Injected (MBq/kg) Number of Dogs
Control Selected age matched dogs from Colony controls
01 0.851 to 19.61 49
total 49


Data generated by these experiments is available from the era [4] ( password needed )


There are no known preserved tissues from this study.


  • Fritz T.E., Norris W.P., Rehfeld C.E. and Poole C.M. 1970. Myeloproliferative disease in beagle dogs given protracted whole-body irradiation or single doses of 144Ce. In Myeloproliferative Disorders of Animals and Man (W.J. Clarke, et al., eds., CONF 680529, NTIS, Springfield, VA) 219-241.
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