Janus Mouse Experiments

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Overview

The Janus Mouse Experiments consisted of 13 radiobiology studies conducted on nearly 50,000 common house mice or white-footed field mice. The experiments included lifetime studies of gamma and neutron irradiation with extensive autopsy records. More information can be found at the Janus Tissue Archive [1].

Documentation

An overview of all the Janus studies was compiled by Grahn et al. in 1995 [2]. Bruce Carnes has produced many reports about the archive. Articles on which he is an author are listed below.

  • Carnes, B.A., Riesch, R., Schlupp, I. 2012. The delayed impact of parental age on offspring mortality in mice. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences 67A (4): 351-357.
  • Carnes, B.A., Riesch, R., Schlupp, I. 2011. The delayed impact of parental age on offspring mortality in mice. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences (doi:10.1093/gerona/glr116).
  • Carnes, B.A., L. Holden, S.J. Olshansky and J.S. Siegel. 2006. Mortality partitions and their relevance to research on senescence. Biogerontology 7: 183-198.
  • Heidenreich, W.F., B.A. Carnes and H.G. Paretzke. 2006. Lung cancer risk in mice: analysis of fractionation effects and neutron RBE with a biologically motivated model. Radiation Research 166: 794-801.
  • Carnes, B.A. (et al.) Report of Scientific Committee 1-4. 2005. Extrapolation of Risks from Nonhuman Experimental Systems to Man. NCRP Report No. 150. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.
  • Carnes, B.A., D. Grahn, and D. Hoel. 2003. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors predicted from laboratory animals. Radiation Research 160: 159-167.
  • Carnes, B.A., S.J. Olshansky and D. Grahn. 2003. Biological evidence for limits to the duration of life. Biogerontology 4(1): 31-45.
  • Groer, P. and B.A. Carnes. 2003. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 103(2): 111-115.
  • Carnes, B.A., N. Gavrilova, and D. Grahn. 2002. Pathology effects at radiation doses below those causing increased mortality. Radiation Research 158(2): 187-194.
  • Carnes, B.A. and S.J. Olshansky. 2001. Heterogeneity and its biodemographic implications for longevity and mortality. Journal of Experimental Gerontology 36(3): 419-430.
  • Carnes, B.A., S.J. Olshansky, and D. Grahn. 1998. An interspecies prediction of the risk of radiation-induced mortality. Radiation Research 149: 487-492.
  • Carnes, B.A., P.G. Groer, and T. Kotek. 1997. Dial workers: dose-response and modeling issues. Radiation Research 147: 707-714.
  • Carnes, B.A., S.J. Olshansky, and Douglas Grahn. 1996. Continuing the search for a law of mortality. Population and Development Review 22: 231-264.
  • Grdina, D.J., and B.A. Carnes. 1994. Chemoprevention by WR-2721. Libri Oncologi 23: 11-16.
  • Carnes, B.A., and T.E. Fritz. 1993. Continuous irradiation of beagles by gamma rays. Radiation Research 136: 103-110.
  • Seed, T., B.A. Carnes, D. Tolle, and T. Fritz. 1993. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: II. Differential preclinical responses of irradiated female dogs in progression to either aplastic anemia or to myeloproliferative disease. Leukemia Research 17: 411-420.
  • Carnes, B.A., and D.J. Grdina. 1992. In vivo protection by the aminothiol WR-2721 against neutron- induced carcinogenicity. International Journal of Radiation Biology 61: 567-576.
  • Grahn, D., L.S. Lombard, and B.A. Carnes. 1992. The comparative tumorigenic effects of fission neutrons and cobalt-60 gamma rays in the B6CF1 mouse. Radiation Research 129: 19-36.
  • Grdina, D.J., B.A. Carnes, and B. Nagy. 1992. Protection by WR-2721 and WR-151327 against late effects of gamma rays and neutrons. Advances in Space Research 12 (2-3): 257-263.
  • Carnes, B.A., and T.E. Fritz. 1991. Responses of the beagle to protracted irradiation. I. Effect of total dose and dose rate. Radiation Research 128: 125-132.
  • Carnes, B.A., and D. Grahn. 1991. Issues about neutron effects: the JANUS program. Radiation Research 128: S141-S146.
  • Grdina, D.J., B.A. Carnes, D. Grahn, and C.P. Sigdestad. 1991. Protection against late effects of radiation by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid. Cancer Research 51: 4125-4130.
  • Grdina, D.J., B.J. Wright, and B.A. Carnes. 1991. Protection by WR-151327 against late-effect damage from fission-spectrum neutrons. Radiation Research 128: S124-S127.
  • Carnes, B.A. 1990. Survival analysis in long-term animal experiments. Radiation Research 124: 369-370.
  • Carnes, B.A., D. Grahn, and J.F. Thomson. 1989. Dose-response modeling of life shortening in a retrospective analysis of the combined data from the JANUS program at Argonne National Laboratory. Radiation Research 119: 39-56.
  • Grdina, D.J., C.P. Sigdestad, and B.A. Carnes. 1989. Protection by WR1065 and WR151326 against fission-neutron-induced mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 cells. Radiation Research 117: 500-510.
  • Peak, M.J., J.G. Peak, B.A. Carnes, C.M. Chang Liu, and C.K. Hill. 1989. DNA damage and repair in rodent and human cells after exposure to JANUS fission spectrum neutrons: single-strand breaks as revealed by alkaline elution are refractors to repair. International Journal of Radiation Biology 55: 761-772.
  • Seed, T.M., B.A. Carnes, D.V. Tolle, and T.E. Fritz. 1989. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation. I. Differential preclinical responses of irradiated male dogs in progression to either aplastic anemia or myeloproliferative disease. Leukemia Research 13: 1069-1084.
  • Bhattacharyya, M.H., B.D. Whelton, D.P. Peterson, B.A. Carnes, E.S. Moretti, J.M. Toomey, and L.L. Williams. 1988. Skeletal changes in multiparous mice fed a nutrient-sufficient diet containing cadmium. Toxicology 50: 193-204
  • Bhattacharyya, M.H., B.D. Whelton, D.P. Peterson, B.A. Carnes, M.S. Guram, and E.S. Moretti. 1988. Kidney changes in multiparous mice fed a nutrient-sufficient diet containing cadmium. Toxicology 50: 205-215.
  • Grahn, D., and B.A. Carnes. 1988. Genetic injury in hybrid male mice exposed to low doses of 60Co-rays or fission neutrons. III. Frequencies of abnormal sperm and reciprocal translocations measured during and following long-term weekly exposures. Mutation Research 198:285-294.
  • Peraino, C., B.A. Carnes, F.J. Stevens, E.F. Staffeldt, J.J. Russell, A. Prapuolenis, and J.A. Blomquist. 1988. Comparative developmental and phenotypic properties of altered hepatocyte foci and hepatic tumors in rats. Cancer Research 48: 4171-1478.
  • Whelton, B.D., M.H. Bhattacharyya, B.A. Carnes, E.S. Moretti, and D.P. Peterson. 1988. Female reproduction and pup survival and growth for mice fed a cadmium-containing purified diet through six consecutive rounds of gestation and lactation. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 24: 321-343.
  • Peak, M.J., J.G. Peak, and B.A. Carnes. 1987. Induction of direct and indirect single-strand breaks in human cell DNA by far- and near-ultraviolet radiations: action spectrum and mechanisms. Photochemistry and Photobiology 45: 381-387.
  • Peraino, C., D.J. Grdina, E.F. Staffeldt, J.J. Russell, A. Prapuolenis, and B.A. Carnes. 1987. Effects of separate and combined treatments with gamma radiation and diethylnitrosamine in neonatal rats on the induction of altered hepatocyte foci and hepatic tumors. Carcinogenesis 8(4): 599-600.
  • Peraino, C., D.A. Haugen, B.A. Carnes, C.A. Reilly, Jr., D.L. Springer, and D.D. Mahlum. 1987. Phenotypically selective promotion of diethylnitrosamine-initiated altered hepatocyte foci by dietary phenobarbital or a topically applied coal-derived organic mixture in male and female rats. Cancer Letters 37: 133-138.
  • Russell, J.J., E.F. Staffeldt, B.J. Wright, A. Prapuolenis, B.A. Carnes, and C. Peraino. 1987. Effects of rat strain, diet composition, and phenobarbital on hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase histo-chemistry and on the induction of altered hepatocyte foci and hepatic tumors by diethylnitrosamine. Cancer Research 47: 1130-1134.
  • Grahn, D., J.F. Thomson, B.A. Carnes, F.S. Williamson, and L.S. Lombard. 1986. Comparative biological effects of low dose, low dose-rate exposures to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor or to 60Co gamma rays. Nuclear Science Applications, Section B, 2: 385-396.
  • Peraino, C., B.A. Carnes, and F.J. Stevens. 1986. Evidence for growth heterogeneity among foci with different phenotypes in the population of altered hepatocyte foci induced by a single neonatal treatment with carcinogen. Carcinogenesis 7: 191-192.
  • Peraino, C., D.J. Grdina, and B.A. Carnes. 1986. Synergistic induction of altered hepatocyte foci by combined gamma radiation and diethyl-nitrosamine administration to neonatal rats. Carcinogenesis 7: 445-448.
  • Grdina, D.J., C. Peraino, B.A. Carnes, and C.K. Hill. 1985. Protective effect of [S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid] against induction of altered hepatocyte foci in rats treated once with gamma irradiation within one day after birth. Cancer Research 45: 5379-5381.
  • Grahn, D., B.A. Carnes, and B.H. Farrington. 1985. Genetic injury in hybrid male mice exposed to low doses of 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons. II. Dominant lethal mutation response to long term weekly exposures. Mutation Research 162: 81-89.
  • Grahn, D., B.A. Carnes, B.H. Farrington, and C.H. Lee. 1984. Genetic injury in hybrid mice exposed to low doses of 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons. I. Response to single doses. Mutation Research 129: 215-229.
  • Peraino, C., E.F. Staffeldt, B.A. Carnes, V.A. Ludeman, J.A. Blomquist, and S.D. Vesselinovitch. 1984. Characterization of histochemically detectable altered hepatocyte foci and their relationship to hepatic tumorigenesis in rats treated once with diethylnitrosamine or benzo(a) pyrene within one day after birth. Cancer Research 44: 3340-3347.
  • Carnes, B.A. and S.J. Olshansky. 2001. Interspecies patterns of age-related mortality. In: ILSI Monograph on the Pathobiology of the Aging Dog, Iowa State University Press.
  • Grahn, D., B.J. Wright, B.A. Carnes, F.S. Williamson, C. Fox. 1995. Studies of Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The Janus Program: Survival and Pathology Data. Chicago: ANL-95/3.
  • Groer, P.G., and B.A. Carnes. 1994. Bayesian estimation of incidence change-points in low dose experimental and epidemiologic studies. In: Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures to Chemicals, Vol. II, Chapter 13, pp. 202-204, Lewis Publishers, London.
  • Grahn, D., J.F. Thomson, and B.A. Carnes. 1990. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fission neutrons and gamma rays at occupational exposure levels. Vol. III. Studies on the Gross and
  • Microscopic Pathology Observed at Death of Mice Exposed to 60 Equal Once-Weekly Doses of Fission Neutrons and Gamma Rays. NUREG/CR-4704, Vol. 3 (ANL-86-33 Vol. 3).
  • Fry, R.J.M., and B.A. Carnes. 1989. Age, sex, and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis. Proceedings of the 14th L. H. Gray Conference, pp. 195-206, Oxford, England.
  • Grahn, D., and B.A. Carnes. 1986. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fission neutrons and gamma rays to occupational exposure levels. Vol I. Studies on the Genetic Effects in Mice of 60 Equal Once-Weekly Exposures to Fission Neutrons and Gamma Rays. NUREG/CR-4704, Vol. 1 (ANL-86-33 Vol. 1).
  • Seed, T.M., T.E. Fritz, D.V. Tolle, C.M. Poole, L.S. Lombard, D.E. Doyle, L.V. Kaspar, S.M. Cullen, and B.A. Carnes. 1984. Survival patterns and hemopathological responses of dogs under continuous gamma irradiation. In: Response of Different Species to Total Body Irradiation, pp. 137-159. J.J. Broerse and T.J. MacVittie, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston, MA.
  • Peraino, C., E.F. Staffeldt, B.A. Carnes, and V.A. Ludeman. 1984. Relationship of histochemically detectable altered hepatocyte foci to hepatic tumorigenesis. Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the Hungarian Cancer Society and the IARC, Budapest, Hungary, May 16-18, 1983, Models, Mechanisms and Etiology of Tumour Promotion, pp. 37-55. M. Borzsonyi, N.E. Day, K. Lapis, and H. Yamasaki, eds., University Press, New York, NY.
  • Carnes, B.A., and M.E. Ginevan. 1983. Estimation of the ridge constant: an approach based on the condition index. American Statistical Association Abstracts, pg. 69.
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